NARONSKAYA A.G. Paradiplomacy of the Sverdlovsk Region: Development and Modalities of Implementing at the Present Stage


Anna G. Naronskaya

Candidate of Sciences (Politics), Associate Professor,

Chair of Theory and History of International Relations, Department of International Relations, Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin,

Mira St, 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. The article examines the key paradiplomacy areas of the Sverdlovsk region. The analysis focuses on the aspects distinguishing the region from other subjects of the present-day Russian Federation, which allowed it to become one of the leaders in developing international activities during the post-Soviet period.

Methods and materials. The methodological basis of this work is constituted by the approaches devised by I. Duchacek. Paradiplomacy is defined as international contacts of regions with different actors in international relations regarding economic, political, cultural and environmental issues. These contacts move in the same direction as activities undertaken by central authorities. Approaches by I. Duchacek, R. Kaiser, A. Kuznetsov, Yu. Akimov were applied to study the motives and factors for active paradiplomacy development of the Sverdlovsk region. To examine the modalities of implementing paradiplomacy in the Sverdlovsk region, scientific and analytical materials were used along with statistic data and indicators provided by the Ministry of International and Foreign Economic Relations of the Sverdlovsk Region and by the Russian Export Center JSC.

Analysis. It was found that the Sverdlovsk region became the first to base its paradiplomacy on the regional identity. On the one hand, the regional identity development was marked by a conflict between the region and the central authorities; on the other hand, the local ruling groups deliberately fostered the policy of regional uniqueness. Mainstreaming the regional identity served the practical interests of elites both in internal political legitimation and in establishing their international economic, political and cultural personality. In the 2000s, the paradiplomacy model of the Sverdlovsk region transformed from conflict to cooperation based on partnering and seeking a compromise with the federal government.

Results. The strategy of paradiplomacy development chosen by the region is evaluated as a success. The emphasis put by the regional authorities on implementing large-scale international projects and developing foreign trade relations allows the Sverdlovsk region not only to keep the indicators of foreign economic activities stable, but also to retain elements of its regional identity.

Key words: paradiplomacy, region, Sverdlovsk region, foreign economic activities, regional identity.

Citation. Naronskaya A.G. Paradiplomacy of the Sverdlovsk Region: Development and Modalities of Implementing at the Present Stage. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2023, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 240-250. DOI:

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Paradiplomacy of the Sverdlovsk Region: Development and Modalities of Implementing at the Present Stage by Naronskaya A.G. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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