KITSENKO O.S., KITSENKO R.N. First Female Doctors in the Zemstvo Service of the Saratov Province (Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2023.2.9

Olga S. Kitsenko

Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor,

Department of History and Cultural Science, Volgograd State Medical University,

Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., 1, 400131 Volgograd, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5015-2238

Roman N. Kitsenko

Candidate of Sciences (Philosophy), Associate Professor,

Department of History and Cultural Science, Volgograd State Medical University,

Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., 1, 400131 Volgograd, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9192-0512


Abstract. Introduction. The gender aspects of modern medicine determine the research interest in the activities of the first female doctors in Russia. In contrast to private practice, the work of doctors in the zemstvo played an important social role. Therefore, the object of this study is the activities of the first female doctors in the service of the Saratov zemstvo.

Methods and materials. The source base of the study was the materials of the zemstvo periodicals and office-work documentation (journals of zemstvo meetings, reports of councils, protocols of medical congresses). The historical-systemic method made it possible to consider the professional activities of the first female doctors of the Saratov zemstvo in the context of the formation of the system of women’s medical education in the Russian Empire. With the help of the historical-comparative method, the general features of the professional activity of V.I. Bukhovtseva, A.I. Sukhodeeva, and E.A. Kharizomenova were defined.

Analysis and results. The authors established the first female doctors appeared in the service of the Saratov zemstvo at the turn of the 1880–1890s. The entry of women into the zemstvo service was hampered by restrictions on the independent medical practice, the termination of medical courses in 1887, and hard working conditions in the Russian provinces. However, the activities of V.I. Bukhovtseva, A.I. Sukhodeeva and E.A. Kharizomenova at the Saratov zemstvo demonstrated the organizational and research abilities of the first female doctors, their awareness of the medical and social problems of the Russian hinterland, and active participation in sanitary and educational work. Restoration and development of higher medical education for women at the turn of the 1890–1900s became the main factor in the increase in the number of female doctors in the zemstvo service, the expansion of their professional competencies, and the increased role in the development of the health care system.

Authors’ contributions. The study of zemstvo office documentation and periodicals containing information about the activities of the first female doctors in the Saratov province was carried out by Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate professor O.S. Kitsenko. Information about the number and place of service of female doctors in the Russian medical lists of 1883–1916 analyzed by the Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, associate professor R.N. Kitsenko.

Key words: zemstvo, zemstvo medicine, female education, female doctors, Saratov province.

Citation. Kitsenko O.S., Kitsenko R.N. First Female Doctors in the Zemstvo Service of the Saratov Province (Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries). Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2023, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 102-113. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2023.2.9.

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First Female Doctors in the Zemstvo Service of the Saratov Province (Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries) by Kitsenko O.S., Kitsenko R.N. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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