NAUMENKO V.E. The “Latins” on Mangup. Unique Western-European Cross-Encolpion from the Excavations of Prince’s Palace in Ancient Mangup: Problems of Attribution and Dating

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.6.7 

Valery E. Naumenko

Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor,

Department of Ancient and Middle Ages History, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University,

Prosp. Vernadskogo, 4, 295007 Simferopol, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2590-6314 


Abstract. Introduction. The article is devoted to the analysis of a unique cross-encolpion of the WesternEuropean type from the excavations of the Mangup Prince’s Palace.

Methods. The research is complex. When describing the find, traditional methods of art history analysis were used, and data from X-ray fluorescence studies were used to determine the material of the product. Attribution of the cross is made on the basis of the generally accepted method of analogies in archaeological science.

Analysis. The encolpion is related to a small group of cast silver crosses with “Latin” features, which were produced during the third quarter of the 15th century in one of the craft workshops of Kaffa. Their author was a master-scholarship holder who most likely moved to the capital of Genoese Gazaria in the Northern Black Sea region from one of the cities of Northern Italy.

Results. Among the many reasons why this encolpion, as a mandatory attribute of the clothing of a Catholic Priest, could end up on Mangup, the most likely are: unknown in the sources Genoese embassy to the capital of the Principality of Feodoro in the period of 1450–1475 for the purpose of establishing a permanent Catholic mission here; the presence of a Catholic priest in the large embassies of Kaffa to the court of the rulers of Feodoro in 1455, 1465 or around 1471; participation of Genoese, who fled from Kaffa after its capture by the Ottoman army, in the subsequent defense of the Mangup fortress in summer and autumn 1475.

Key words: Mangup fortress, Byzantium, Feodoro principality, Genoese Gazaria, palace, encolpion.

Citation. Naumenko V.E. The “Latins” on Mangup. Unique Western-European Cross-Encolpion from the Excavations of Prince’s Palace in Ancient Mangup: Problems of Attribution and Dating. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2020, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 100-115. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.6.7.

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The “Latins” on Mangup. Unique Western-European Cross-Encolpion from the Excavations of Prince’s Palace in Ancient Mangup: Problems of Attribution and Dating by Naumenko V.E. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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