KHOKHLOV A.A., KITOV E.P., KAPINUS Yu.O. To the Issue of Anthropological Contacts Between the Populations of the Srubnaya and Alakul Cultures of the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan Steppes

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.4.4 

Alexander A. Khokhlov

Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,

Department of Biology, Ecology and Training Methods, Head of the Volga-Ural Center for Paleoanthropological Studies,

Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education,

M. Gorkogo St, 65/67, 443099 Samara, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0442-9616 

Egor P. Kitov

Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Researcher,

Center of Anthropoecology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS,

Prosp. Leninskiy 32A, 119334 Moscow, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0159-3288 

Yulia O. Kapinus

Researcher,

Volga-Ural Center for Paleoanthropological Studies,

Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education,

M. Gorkogo St, 65/67, 443099 Samara, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9627-0109 


Abstract. Introduction. The work focuses on anthropological materials of the border between two areals: the Srubnaya and Alakul cultures of the Bronze Age. New data is based on the burial grounds of the Kozhumberdy type of the Alakul culture from Western Kazakhstan. Methods and materials. The authors compare the craniological series which are formed according to the geographical localization of the monuments and modern archaeological ideas about their cultural interpretation.

Analysis. As a result of statistical analysis, the craniological series of the Srubnaya and Alakul cultures are morphologically quite close, but the latter show higher variability of characteristics. More close to each other are samples of female skulls which show that the formation of physical characteristics of these populations occurred on a single anthropological substrate. Initially, carriers of different caucasoid complexes, mainly of steppe origin, and in a small proportion of the uraloid ones took part in the process. The populations of the Srubnaya and Alakul cultures for a long time interacted with each other. This is reflected in the materials of syncretic Srubnaya-Alakul monuments, as well as in the craniological characteristics of the population of these cultural entities. Judging by morphological features of the skulls, the eastern group of the Alakul population also contacted the collectives of the Fedorovo version of the Andronovo culture of Kazakhstan. The participation of any groups of Central Asian origin in the composition of Alakul populations is not denied, but if it took place, it was most likely of a secondary nature due to the incorporation of certain representatives of a foreign population.

Results. The results and conclusions of this work should be used in historical reconstructions of the processes of the formation, development and extinction of the Bronze Age archaeological communities in the area of the VolgaUrals and Western Kazakhstan.

Key words: anthropology, archaeology, Alakul culture, Srubnaya culture, Bronze Age, Volga-Ural region, Western Kazakhstan, contacts. Citation. Khokhlov A.A., Kitov E.P., Kapinus Yu.O. To the Issue of Anthropological Contacts Between the Populations of the Srubnaya and Alakul Cultures of the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan Steppes. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2020, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 65-83. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.4.4.

Лицензия Creative Commons

To the Issue of Anthropological Contacts Between the Populations of the Srubnaya and Alakul Cultures of the Late Bronze Age in the Southern Urals and Western Kazakhstan Steppes by Khokhlov A.A., Kitov E.P., Kapinus Yu.O. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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