KOSTINA T.V. Alternative to the University: Academy’s College of Vladimir G. Orlov (1770)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.2.3 

Tatiana V. Kostina

Candidate of Sciences (History), Researcher, Scientific-Historical Archive and Group of Source Studies,

Saint Petersburg Institute of History of Russian Academy of Sciences,

Petrozavodskaya St., 7, 197110 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. In the second half of the 1760s – the first half of the 1770s Ivan I. Betskoy implemented a far-reaching reform of Russian education. It appeared that the problems of two Russian universities had not been the key issues of the reform. Apparently, that was the reason why they were not previously considered as a part of the systemic all-European crisis in higher education, which had been caused by a need to secularize universities and inculcate national languages into them, as well as by the general development of sciences, especially physical and cameral ones.

Methods and materials. The article for the first time analyzes the model of the Academy’s College created at the Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1770 to replace the Academy’s university that had ceased to exist in 1767. Based on the “Privileges and Statute of the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences” (1770), the research proves that this document compiled by Vladimir G. Orlov was brought into action without any legislative approval.

Analysis. According to the Orlov’s Statute, Academy’s College appeared at the Academy to reproduce scientists who represented science, but not liberal arts which coincided with the new trend of the Academy of Sciences. It was arranged according to the model common to all education institutions reformed under Ivan I. Betskoy. After completing the main course of study, students were renamed as élèves and assigned to particular academicians for the improvement in science. At the same time, they attended public science courses, which corresponded to the university program in science and since then were allowed to read not only in Latin and Russian (as in the Statute of 1747), but also in new European languages.

Results. Hence, an alternative model of training scientific personnel, which meant a higher educational level, was created at the Academy of Sciences.

Key words: gymnasiums, Ivan I. Betskoy, history of education, history of the Russian Academy of Sciences, history of universities, Russia in the 18th century, colleges.

Citation. Kostina T.V. Alternative to the University: Academy’s College of Vladimir G. Orlov (1770). Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2020, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 44-55. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.2.3.

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Alternative to the University: Academy’s College of Vladimir G. Orlov (1770) by Kostina T.V. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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