ORLENKO S.P. Bartelt Kinneman, Philip Timofeev, Kaspar Kalthof II. Career of Foreign Gunsmiths in Russia in the 17th Century

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.1.1 

Sergey P. Orlenko

Candidate of Sciences (History), Head of the Department of Arms and Armor,

Moscow Kremlin State Historical and Cultural Museum and Heritage Site Kremlin,

103132 Moscow, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. An important aspect of studying the activities of the court Armoury of the Russian tsars of the 17th century is the work of foreign specialists. The firearms made by Bartelt Kinneman, Philip Timofeev and Kaspar Kalthof II are currently preserved in the collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums. Unfortunately, many aspects of the biographies and professional activity of these masters in Russia are still poorly studied.

Methods and materials. The basis for the study is the complex of unpublished sources of the former archive of the Armoury Chamber – currently Fund 396 of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA). Besides, the paper applies unpublished and published sources of the offices of the Ambassadorial Prikaz, the Artillery Prikaz and the Secret Affairs Prikaz.

Analysis. When considering the biography of one of the most successful court gunsmiths Bartelt Kinneman, we pay attention to the episode with the escape from him of student named Philip arrived with him from Vilna. In 1672, master Philip Timofeev, who later took a high position among the court gunsmiths, was transferred from the office of the Artillery Prikaz to the Armoury Chamber. The examined documents helped clarify some important details of gunsmiths Kaspar Kalthof II’s stay in Russia. In particular, it was possible to determine the place and duration of his service in the workshop of the Artillery Prikaz. The sources allow to establish that Philip Timofeev was a student who escaped from master B. Kinneman in 1661, entered military service, and later worked in the Armoury workshop in the office of Artillerie with K. Kalthof II. It is assumed that the transition of Ph. Timofeev and his successful career in the Armoury Сhamber became possible as a result of the agreement that he concluded with his former master B. Kinneman.

Results. The article introduces new information about the place of service of the gunsmiths in Russia, the features of professional training, career development in the court Armoury, the specifics of relationships with each other and with the Russian administration.

Key words: Russia, Armoury Chamber, 17th century, Bartar Kinneman, Philip Timofeev, Kaspar Kalthof.

Citation. Orlenko S.P. Bartelt Kinneman, Philip Timofeev, Kaspar Kalthof II. Career of Foreign Gunsmiths in Russia in the 17th Century. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2020, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 6-21. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2020.1.1.

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Bartelt Kinneman, Philip Timofeev, Kaspar Kalthof II. Career of Foreign Gunsmiths in Russia in the 17th Century by Orlenko S.P. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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