BARANOV A.V. The Terek Cossacks in the Conditions of “Extending” the New Economic Policy: Changes in the Ethnodemographic Structure and Public Opinion


Andrey V. Baranov

Doctor of Sciences (History), Doctor of Sciences (Politics), Professor, Head of the Department of Political Science and Political Management,

Kuban State University,

Stavropolskaya St., 149, 350040 Krasnodar, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. The subject of this work is the ethno-demographic structure and public opinion of the Terek Cossacks during the period of the NEP “extending”. The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of changes in the ethnodemographic structure and public opinion of the Terek Cossacks in the context of “extending” the new economic policy (autumn 1924–1926).

Methods and materials. The research methodology includes social constructivism as applied to interpreting the Cossacks’ ethnicity. The paper uses the synchronous and diachronic comparative analysis of political orientations of Cossack property layers; a variation series was built on the materials of the All-Union Census of 1926 to identify the total number of the Terek Cossacks and its ethnic identity.

Analysis and results. The policy of party-Soviet authorities on “extending” the NEP was carried out on the Terek in part, which was explained by interethnic and land conflicts in the region, the Terek’s border strategic location. This conclusion relates to the scale of the amnesty of white movement participants, “revitalization” of local Soviets, easing of policies towards well-off layers of the Cossacks, and their public associations. The response of Terek Cossacks manifested in public opinion developed from the initial hope for democratic elections of councils, cooperatives, land societies (autumn 1924 – spring 1925) to disappointment in inconsistent reforms, to Cossacks’ attempts to seize local governments (elections of 1926). The article also proves the predominance of Russian ethnic identity among Terek Cossacks, establishes the territorial structure of their residence area (based on the census of 1926). The author proves the direct proportional relationship between the level of urbanization of the Cossacks living in multiethnic local communities and the choice of Russian identity.

Key words: Terek Cossacks, new economic policy, extending, ethnodemography, public opinion.

Citation. Baranov A.V. The Terek Cossacks in the Conditions of “Extending” the New Economic Policy: Changes in the Ethnodemographic Structure and Public Opinion. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2019, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 114-123. (in Russian). DOI:

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The Terek Cossacks in the Conditions of “Extending” the New Economic Policy: Changes in the Ethnodemographic Structure and Public Opinion by Baranov A.V. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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