MORGUNOVA N.L., ROSLYAKOVA N.V., KULKOVA M.A. New Data on the Chronology and Development of Cattle Breading During the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age in the Southern Ural Region

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2019.3.2

Nina L. Morgunova

Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor, Chief Researcher,

Archaeological Laboratory, Orenburg State Pedagogical University,

Sovetskaya St., 19, 460014 Orenburg, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8091-7411

Natalia V. Roslyakova

Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Researcher,

Archaeological Laboratory, Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education,

M.Gorkogo St., 65/67, 443099 Samara, Russian Federation

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1888-2713

Marianna A. Kulkova

Candidate of Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy), Associate Professor,

Department of Geology and Geoecology, Herzen State Pedagogical University,

r. Moyki Emb., 48/12, 191186 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9946-8751


Abstract. Introduction. The article considers the features of cattle breeding and consumption of meat products in the Eneolithic cultures (the Samara culture) and the Early Bronze Age cultures (the Repin stage of the Pit Grave culture) on the territory of the Southern Urals (the Samara Trans-Volga region). The paper specifies the chronology of these cultures on the base of radiocarbon dating. The main site for the study was Turganik settlement located in the Southern Ural region (Orenburg region).

Methods. More than 800 m2 of the settlement area was excavated. There were six paleosoil layers. Four upper layers were empty, without artifacts. The sixth layer contained Eneolithic finds. The fifth layer contained finds of the Early Bronze Age. The archaeozoological collection was analyzed in accordance with the methodological scheme developed by E.E. Antipina. For radiocarbon dating collagen was treated from bone samples on the base of the standard procedure and radiocarbon activity was measured by Quantulus 1220 low background scintillation counter.

Analysis and Results. As a result 32 radiocarbon dates were obtained on animal bones and on organics from pottery of different types from different cultural layers of Turganik settlement. The Eneolithic complex includes ceramics, flint and bone tools. The paper specifies the finds of developed and later stages of the Samara culture. The artifacts of the second stage of the Samara culture were dated to 4900–4500 cal BC. The artifacts of the later stage belong to the period of 4300–3800 cal BC. We suggest that from the Early Eneolithic local people practiced cattle breeding without agriculture. Hunting played a secondary role and fishing was poorly developed. Beef was the main food in the people’s diet during the Eneolithic period. The Early Bronze Age assemblage includes ceramics of the Repin stage of the Pit Grave culture, stone macro-tools, flint arrowheads, items made of bones and copper, slags and scarps of copper ore. The technological analysis supported that ceramics belong to the Pit Grave culture. The layer age is from 3800 to 3300 cal BC. During the Repin stage the role of sheep breeding was increased and consumption of sheep meat prevailed in comparison with the Eneolithic period. This is an evidence of the transition to the nomadic form of stock breeding.

Key words: Southern Ural region, Eneolithic period, Samarian culture, Early Bronze Age, Pit Grave culture, cattle breading.

Citation. Morgunova N.L., Roslyakova N.V., Kulkova M.A. New Data on the Chronology and Development of Cattle Breading During the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age in the Southern Ural Region. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2019, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 17-36. (in Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2019.3.2.

Лицензия Creative Commons

New Data on the Chronology and Development of Cattle Breading During the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age in the Southern Ural Region by Morgunova N.L., Roslyakova N.V., Kulkova M.A. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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