KRINKO E.F., GORYUSHINA E.M. The Events and Participants of the Time of Troubles in the Russian Memorial Culture


Evgeny F. Krinko

Doctor of Sciences (History), Chief Researcher of the Laboratory of History and Ethnography,

Southern Scientific Center, RAS,

Prosp. Chekhova, 41, 344006 Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation

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Evgeniya M. Goryushina

Researcher, Political Research Laboratory,

Southern Scientific Center, RAS,

Prosp. Chekhova, 41, 344006 Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. The study of historical memory has recently become one of the most relevant research areas. The Time of Troubles of the early 17th century is one of the most acute socio-political crises in the history of the country which has been arousing the interest of many historians. At the same time, the features of reflecting events and participants of the Time of Troubles in various forms of historical memory are becoming the subject of special studies.

Methods and materials. The authors used the institutional approach,general scientific methods of logical analysis, the comparative historical and problem chronological methods, the situational analysis. The article is based on the authors’ field observations, historiographic sources and mass media publications.

Analysis. Three periods can be distinguished in the memorialization of events and participants of the Time of Troubles: pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet. They are closely related to the periods in the history of the Russian and Soviet states and the policy of memory. In addition, each of them is divided into two stages.

Results. In the 17th – 18th centuries, honoring events, heroes and martyrs of the Time of Troubles took religious forms. In the 19th century, the policy of memory was separated from the church and became an independent area of activity. But its dependence on the state was increasing, especially in the era of Nicholas I’s reign. This was evidenced by forming the cult of Susanin. The largest ideological campaign of imperial Russia which caused a significant increase in the number of memorial events and objects dedicated to the Time of Troubles was the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov. After the revolution of 1917, a program of monumental propaganda was implemented. It included overthrowing old monuments of the monarchy and establishing new ones, including ones dedicated to popular movements and their leaders, and Bolotnikov was one of them. Closing and destructing temples acquired a massive character. It involved temples dedicated to the Time of Troubles as well. But since the late 1930s, Soviet policy of memory returned to patriotic principles, which led to creating new monuments to Susanin, Minin and Pozharsky. The modern period in the Soviet policy of memory development is characterized by restoring destroyed temples and erecting new monuments to participants of the Time of Troubles, including those who were “omitted figures”. National Unity Day gave a significant impetus to creating memorial objects in honor of the events and heroes of the Time of Troubles. Monuments of regional and local significance appeared in many places. They were designed not only to “fit” the fate of a particular locality into the general history of the country, but also to make it more attractive for tourists.

Key words: the Time of Troubles, memorial culture, policy of memory, Kuzma Minin, Dmitry Pozharsky, Ivan Susanin.

Citation. Krinko E.F., Goryushina E.M. The Events and Participants of the Time of Troubles in the Russian Memorial Culture. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4, Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2019, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 203-214. (in Russian). DOI:

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The Events and Participants of the Time of Troubles in the Russian Memorial Culture by Krinko E.F., Goryushina E.M. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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