MAKSIMOV K.N. Reconnaissance and Sabotage Plans of Special Agencies of Nazi Germany in Kalmykia During the Great Patriotic War


Konstantin N. Maksimov

Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor,

Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov,

Puschkina St., 11, 358000 Elista, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. On the basis of new resources, the article examines the actions of the Nazi agencies which inculcated sabotage groups of betrayers and experienced German agents on the Ju-290 of the Luftwaffe in 1943-1944 in the Kalmyk steppe. The main purpose of the German operations was to conduct reconnaissance and sabotage actions in the rear of the red army to cause the uprising of the population of Kalmykia.

Methods and materials. Scientific, popular science publications that have appeared in recent years and documents introduced into scientific circulation cover only the general picture and fragmentary episodes of special operations of secret Luftwaffe units. The main source base of the article consists of unpublished documents identified by the author in the funds of the State Archives of the Russian Federation. These are documents about the results of the interrogations of some of the leaders of the fascist special services, certificates, reports, cases of various Soviet special services and officials addressed to the leaders of the highest party, state bodies, the NKVD of the USSR. These documents are devoted to the results of the fight against banditry in the country, with desertion, evasion of service.

Analysis and results. The Abwehr group (Otto Verba’s103 officers with the agent name - the doctor Doll) having the false information about the readiness of the rebels for uprising planned to raise a rebellion of the Kalmyk population. In this connection, the German special services planned a special operation under the code name Salzsee (‘Salt lake’). In October 1943 and May 1944 the Germans using the newest Junkers landed prepared saboteurs groups of collaborators and experienced scouts in the central part of the Kalmyk steppe. Some of the crews of aircraft and saboteurs were destroyed by the chekists, captured scouts agreed to cooperate with the SMERSH and to participate in the radio game. As a result, due to the radio game Aryans held by the Soviet intelligence, the Abwehr group intentions had completely failed. The Germans lost two new Ju-290 aircrafts with crew members and experienced scouts. During the operation Dr. Doll secretly disappeared and after the war found himself in the Eastern part of Germany.

Key words: the Abwehr, Doctor Doll, Salzsee operation, reconnaissance and sabotage groups, Kalmyk steppe, NKVD of the USSR, SMERSH, radio game Aryans.

Citation. Maksimov K.N. Reconnaissance and Sabotage Plans of Special Agencies of Nazi Germany in Kalmykia During the Great Patriotic War. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4, Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2019, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 109-122. (in Russian). DOI:

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Reconnaissance and Sabotage Plans of Special Agencies of Nazi Germany in Kalmykia During the Great Patriotic War by Maksimov K.N. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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