BESPROZVANNYKH Eu.L. “28 additional articles” of Chi Shan and the state of the Tibet-China relations by the 40s of the XIX century. Part 2

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2012.1.11

Besprozvannykh Eugeny Leonidovich

Doctor Nauk (History), Professor, Department of Archeology and Foreign History,

Volgograd State University

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Abstract. The article analyses the state of the relations between China and Tibet, which played the part of “buffer territory” in the bounds of the Qing Empire. Non-Han peoples in the north, in the northwest and west of the Empire (“inner barbarians”) were governed by their own administration, but in the presence of Qing deputies and garrisons. During the period of fifty years (from 1793 to 1844) Tibet didn’t trouble Peking so much. However, the calmness in the Land of Snow was deceptive: the influence of the Qing Dynasty was declining, but the independence of the local government was increasing. It resulted in the removal of the too strong regent and the formal restriction of the independence of local leaders (“28 additional articles” Chi Shan). Peking still could be supported by a grouping of pro-Qing activists, but the general weakening of the Empire favoured the development of liberation tendencies in Tibet.

Key words: the Qing dynasty, ambans, “buffer territories”, hierarchs, Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama, “opium” wars, unequal treaties.

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