FALALEEVA L.A. “Little Cogs of the Huge State Machine”. Formation and Development of Nursery Care System in 1920-1930s (on the Materials of the Republic of Germans in the Volga Region)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15688/jvolsu4.2017.2.10

Lyudmila A. Falaleeva


Department of International Relations, Political Science and Area Studies, Volgograd State University,

Prosp. Universitetsky, 100, 400062 Volgograd, Russian Federation

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Abstract. The article is devoted to insufficiently studied aspects of the history of the Volga Germans. On the basis of the documents kept in the State Historical Archives of the Volga Germans, the author reveals the peculiarities of formation and development of the nursery care system in the USSR of Volga Germans in 1920-1930s. In the article measures on preparing medical and pedagogical staff are reviewed. It was concluded that the establishment of nurseries led not only to improvement of children’s health, but also released labour force of peasant women for the national economy.

The author found that the first information about the opening of nurseries in the German autonomy is related to 1921 – from that moment an active process of formation of the Soviet system of nursery facilities in the region had begun. Due to large-scale famine of the early 1920s, existence of nurseries was under threat, despite the active government policy on this issue. Only in 1925 the matter of protection of motherhood and childhood stabilized, and with active support of female population of Volga Germans started to rapidly gain the momentum. In the mid-1930s more than 5 000 children in ASSR NP became pupils of nurseries. All the year round a woman was able to break free from the hassle of taking care of children and the young generation from the first years of life was brought up under state control.

The operation of nurseries caused both a need and an interest among German women, in contrast to many other social projects of the Soviet power against women. The author concludes that the mass distribution of nurseries in the territory of ASSR NP and their introduction into the social environment, allows considering them as significant administrative practices aimed at the destruction of traditional ways of life of women, effective even in the national autonomy.

Key words: Germans of the Volga regions, nurseries, early childhood care, protection of mothering and childhood, ideology, social policy, everyday life.

Citation. Falaleeva L.A. “Little cogs of the huge state machine”. Formation and development of nursery care system in 1920-1930s (on the materials of the Republic of Germans in the Volga region). Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija 4, Istorija. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2017, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 98-108. (in Russian).

Лицензия Creative Commons

“Little Cogs of the Huge State Machine”. Formation and Development of Nursery Care System in 1920-1930s (on the Materials of the Republic of Germans in the Volga Region) by Falaleeva L.A. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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