VASYLIEV D.V. The Kazakh Steppe at the Turn of the 18th-19th Centuries: Reforms and Projects


Dmitriy Valentinovich Vasilyev

Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor, First Vice-Rector,

Institute of State Management, Law and Innovative Technologies

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Aleksandra Solzhenitsyna St., 13, 109004 Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract. The following article is written on the basis of published and archival sources. O. Igelstrom’s reforms, and also the projects for government of the Kazakh Steppe prepared by some Russian officials, officers and ecclesiastics are considered by the author. Their singularities and differences are shown; the conclusion on their influence on the Russian policy in the region is drawn. The main attention is paid to reforms of O. Igelstrom who created the administrative institutions founded on local political tradition in the Small Horde. He intended to use them as  instruments for the Russian influence in the Kazakh steppe. Local patrimonial leaders turned into government officials. But this experience was unsuccessful. Traditional Kazakh institutions didn’t conform to requirements of the Russian administration. The failure of those reforms provoked search of new models for the organization of Kazakh steppe’s administration. The Orenburg official D. Grankin suggested to refuse patrimonial division of the Small horde and to divide it according to the territorial principle. He suggested to include Russian officials and mullahs in all administrative bodies and to strengthen them by military detachments. The chief of the Siberian Lines Ya. Bouver suggested introducing the territorial division in the Middle Horde close to the imperial one. Expansion of the Russian sociocultural codes to the region was the main idea of his project. In the article considerable attention is paid to proposals of the Orenburg mufti M. Khusainov. He suggested to divide the Small Horde into two parts taking into account the patrimonial principle. The khan with sultans and advisers had to be at the head of each part. The deputies elected by notable Kazakhs had to become a sort of representative body in the part. The group of the armed Russian Muslims had to support safety in the Steppe. The Russian participation in internal administration of the Steppe was offered to minimize. Such approach couldn’t satisfy the Russian administration. Search of the most optimum model for Kazakh’s administration was continued in the 19th century.

Key words: history of Kazakhstan, legislation, policy of the Russian Empire, Central Asia, Igelstrom, Khusainov, administration reforms.

Лицензия Creative Commons

The Kazakh Steppe at the Turn of the 18th-19th Centuries: Reforms and Projects by Vasilyev D.V. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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