NIKITIN D.S. Indian National Congress in the Years of the Lansdowne’s Government (1888–1894): Problems of Development


Dmitrii S. Nikitin

Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Lecturer,

Department of Oriental Studies, National Research Tomsk State University,

Prosp. Lenina, 34, 634050 Tomsk, Russian Federation

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Abstract. Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of the main activities of the Indian National Congress (INC) during the reign of Viceroy Lansdowne. During this period, the main objects of the Congress were official recognition by the colonial administration and the expansion of propaganda work in Britain. But Congress also had several internal problems, such as an undeveloped organizational structure and controversies over unresolved social problems in India.

Methods and materials. Based on reports on the annual sessions of the INC and the Indian and British press, the article examines the main problems of the development of the INC in 1888– 1894, the reasons for the increased activity of the Congress in England and the process of the emergence of the Congress’ branches in London and the Indian Parliamentary Committee, and the peculiarities of the relationship between Congress and the colonial administration.

Analysis. The Viceroy’s views on Congress and their differences from the previous course of the Indian government are analyzed. The specifics of the activities of the INC in Great Britain are revealed. Particular attention is paid to the parliamentary work of the Congress. The reasons for the intensification of internal contradictions in the INC in the early 1890s are investigated.

Results. It is concluded that Viceroy Lansdowne’s refusal to abandon the repressive policy towards the Congress contributed to the progressive development of the Congress, which manifested itself in the revitalization of its activities in Great Britain. However, the development was accompanied by the strengthening of internal organizational contradictions and the beginning of the formation of a Congress’ radical wing.

Key words: Indian National Congress, Lansdowne, Age of Consent Act, British Committee, Allan Octavian Hume.

Citation. Nikitin D.S. Indian National Congress in the Years of the Lansdowne’s Government (1888–1894): Problems of Development. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations], 2023, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 156-164. (in Russian). DOI:

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Indian National Congress in the Years of the Lansdowne’s Government (1888–1894): Problems of Development by Nikitin D.S. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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